Clinical phonetics and phonology
Some of the studies on the segmental level of language concern the classic paradigm of phonological processes of speech simplification (Ingram, 1976): in Polish speakers with sensorineural hearing loss, mostly concerning sibilants [Marta Marecka and Monika Polcy????ska]; in a Spanish agrammatic aphasic, displaying sound substitutions as a phonological problem –unit selection– and not a phonetic impairment [Anna Marczyk, Lorraine Baqué, Martine Le Besnerais and Marta Estrada], in both cases by means of acoustic analysis; or either in two Spanish children with Williams Syndrome–orthographic CHAT transcription–, in which the usual processes –affecting syllabic structure, substitutions and omissions– remain longer than in typical phonological development [Verónica Martínez, Aránzazu Antón, Manuela Miranda and Eliseo Díez-Itza].
Equally centered on the production of speech, Sara Howard and Zoe Jordan present an innovative comparison between the articulation of a ventriloquist and the output of two children with speech impairments: in both cases, compensatory strategies were adopted in order to obtain sufficient intelligibility and acceptability.
Beyond the phoneme, the syllable is the unit of study for Sara Candeias and Fernando Perdigão, focused on the coarticulation degree in C+r+V or C+l+V structures produced by a Portuguese child with speech dysfunctions compared with a normal child. Also, Limor Adi Bensaid and Yishai Tobin analysed the vowel lengthening in different syllable positions in the speech of a Hebrew deaf child with cochlear implant, and report vowel durations significantly longer before sonorant codas (specially if the coda is deleted) than before obstruent codas or open syllables, a less prominent context.
Concerning the rhythm of speech, Judit Bóna has observed the differences of disfluency of a Hungarian male clutterer across four different speaking styles, the most affected being spontaneous narration, and rhetorical speech the least.
Prosody receives substantial attention in this volume. Its assessment will be considered below; regarding its description, we have two examinations of intonation on oesophageal and /or tracheoesophageal speech: one of them with a Spanish alaryngeal speaker proficient in both speech modes [María Heliodora Cuenca and Marina Barrio], who uses different cues depending on speech modality–pauses for oesophageal and lengthening for tracheoesophageal–; the other, with four Hungarian good oesophageal speakers [Alexandra Markó and Tekla Etelka Gráczi], shows that F0 plays the weightiest role in intonational contrasts. Intonation has also been analysed in autism, in the work of Hila Green and Yishai Tobin: their ten high-functioning autistic children exhibit a limited repertoire of prosodic patterns, compared with ten Israeli Hebrew controls. Prosodic variations related to grammar complexity in Buenos Aires Spanish is the aim of Claudia Ruth Enbe and Yishai Tobin paper, in 132 typical and 18 atypical speakers of both genders from 5 to 58 years old; an inverse proportion was found between the difficulty of the sentence and the range of prosodic variation for both groups. Finally, brain lateralisation of prosodyin four aphasic patients, also in Spanish (Venezuelan), was chosen by Lourdes